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“By the beginning of the eighties it had become clear that the policy of grand apartheid had encountered two apparently insurmountable problems: firstly, the flood of black South Africans to the so-called white cities had not turned by 1978 as the planners had predicted. On the contrary, the demands of the booming economy of the sixties and seventies had turned it into a flood which had washed away for once and all any illusion that whites would ever constitute a majority in the areas of the country that they claimed for themselves; secondly, only four of the ten homelands were prepared to accept independence. Kwa-Zulu, under the leadership of Chief Minister Mangosuthu Buthelezi, in particular, was adamant in refusing to move beyond its self-governing status. Ironically, it was this decision by homelands governments, which were generally derided as being puppets of the South African government, which sounded the death knell for grand apartheid, the very system that had brought them into being. It was clear that the government would have to consider some alternative constitutional framework for the accommodation of the political aspirations of the great majority of black South Africans who lived either in the non-independent homelands or in the so-called white areas.”   

“The Last Trek: A New Beginning” - FW de Klerk, Macmillan 1999, p.99